Thursday, August 17, 2017

Drugs To Avoids During Pregnancy

These Are The Drugs To avoid when pregnant because these drugs Cause Problems During Pregnancy.
  • Fluoroquinolones (such as ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, and norfloxacin)
  • Nitrofurantoin
  • Streptomycin
  • Sulfonamides (such as sulfasalazine and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole)
  • Tetracycline
Abnormalities Caused By These Drugs
Possibility of bone and joint abnormalities (seen only in animals)
2) Anticonvulsants
  • Carbamazepine
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenytoin
  • Valproate

Abnormalities Caused By These Drugs
  • Bleeding problems in the newborn. This Problem Can be prevented by Taking Vitamin K Orally 30 Days Before Delivery
  • Cause Risk of birth defects, including neural tube defects (such as spina bifida)
  • Volproate Cause Some (1%) risk of birth defects, including a neural tube defects (such as a meningomyelocele), cleft palate, and defects of face,  the heart, skull, limbs , and  spine
3) Antihypertensives
a)Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
  • Captopril
  • Benazepril
  • Fosinopril
  • Enalapril
  • Lisinopril
  • Quinapril
  • Ramipril
  • Trandolapril
  • Perindopril
Abnormalities Caused By These Drugs :Serious Injury To The Fetus ,May Cause Kidney Damage In The Fetus ,Reduce Amniotic Fluid,Also Cause Defects Of Lungs ,Face And Limbs
b)Calcium Channel Blockers:
  • Isradipine
  • Nisoldipine
  • Amlodipine
  • Verapamil
  • Nifedipine (sustained-release only)
  • Diltiazem(sustained-release only)
  • Nicardipine
  • Felodipine
Abnormalities Caused By CCB:
Fluid retention in the ankles ,Dizziness, headache,  flushing, heartburn,an abnormally fast heart rate (tachycardia)  And enlarged gums.
Verapamil also caused Constipation.
c)Beta Blockers Drugs :
  • Atenolol
  • Bisoprolol
  • Metoprolol
  • Acebutolol
  • Nadolol
  • Penbutolol
  • Propranolol
  • Betaxolol
  • Carteolol
  • Timolol
  • Nebivolol
  • Pindolol

Problems Caused By Beta Blockers:
Beta Blockers Caused Slow Growth Rate In The Fetus And Also Cause Low Level Of Blood Sugar And Low Heart Rate .
d)Thiazide Diuretics:
  • Chlorothiazide
  • Bendroflumethiazide
  • Hydroflumethiazide
  • Chlorthalidone
  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Methyclothiazide
  • Metolazone
  • Indapamide
Problems Caused By Diuretics:
Taking Thiazide Diuretics During Pregnancy Will Cause Decrease In The Level Of oxygen,Potasium Sodium.Also Decrease In  Number Of  Platelets  In The Fetus. Inadequate Growth Before Birth.
4) Antianxiety drug:
  • Diazepam
Abnormalities Caused By Diazepam :
When This Drug Is Taken In The Third Trimester Of Pregnancy It cause irritability, exaggerated reflexes in the newborn depression, and shaking.
5) Mood-stabilizing drug:
  • Lithium
Poor feeding, Lethargy, reduced muscle tone, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in the newborn And underactivity of the thyroid gland.
6) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Naproxen
  • Ibuprofen
  • Aspirin and other salicylates

Problems Or Abnormalities :
When the medication are taken in large doses, probably miscarriages during the first trimester, a delay within thebegin of labor, premature closing of the connection between the aorta and artery to the lungs (ductus arteriosus), jaundice, necrotizing enterocolitis (damage to the liner of the intestine), and (occasionally) brain injury within thefoetus and bleeding issues within the woman throughout and after delivery and/or within the newborn
When the medication are taken late in pregnancy, a discount in the amount of fluid round the developing foetus.

7)Sex Hormones:
  • Synthetic progestins (but not the low doses used in oral contraceptives)
  • Danazol
(When Synthetic Progestin And Danazol  are taken In The early stages Of pregnancy, masculinization of a female fetus’s genitals, sometimes requiring surgery for correction)
  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
(Abnormalities of the penis in sons.Abnormalities of the uterus, an increased risk of vaginal cancer ,menstrual problems, and complications during pregnancy in daughters)
Vaccines for polio, measles, mumps or yellow fever
This Vaccine cause Potential infection of the placenta and developing fetus.
Vaccine for  chickenpox (varicella) and rubella.
This Is Associated With Unknow Risks.
9)Drugs Used In Skin Treatment:
Both Of these Drugs Cause Birth defects, such as small ears,  heart defects, and hydrocephalus .
While Isotretinoin Also Cause  Intellectual disability And Risk of miscarriage.
10) Oral ant diabetic drugs:
  • Metformin
  • Glyburide
  • Tolbutamide
  • Chlorpropamide

Problems/Abnormalities Caused By These Drugs :
Inadequate control of diabetes in the pregnant woman
When a Pregnant woman with type 2 diabetes Takle The Drugs, possibility of increased risk of miscarriage Are More .

Also Cause a  very low blood sugar level in the newborn.

Monday, February 6, 2017

Why must some medicines be taken with or after food?

Some medicines need to be taken with or after food. The six main reasons for this are outlined below.
1. To reduce side effects of nausea or vomiting
It’s better to take some medicines that can cause nausea or vomiting after a meal to reduce these side effects. Examples include allopurinol, bromocriptine and madopar.
2. To reduce side effects of stomach irritation, including indigestion, stomach inflammation or ulcers
Some medicines can irritate the stomach, and taking them with food will reduce this effect. Foods such as biscuits or a sandwich, or a glass of milk, is usually enough. Examples include:Aspirin non-steroidal anti-Inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as diclofenac and ibuprofensteroid medication (corticosteroids), such as prednisolone and dexamethasone
3. To treat problems such as heartburn, reflux or indigestion
Medicines called antacids are taken to prevent heartburn, reflux and indigestion, which usually occur when acid is produced as food enters your stomach. Therefore, these medicines are most effective if taken immediately after, or during, a meal.
4. To ensure the medicine is not washed away
Preparations such as mouthwashes, liquid nystatin and miconazole gel for oral thrush or mouth ulcers must be used after meals. This is because eating food washes the medicine away too quickly.
5. To ensure the medicine is absorbed into the bloodstream properly
Some medications require food in the stomach and gut for the body to absorb them properly, such as the HIV medicines ritonavir, saquinavir and nelfinavir.
6. To help the body process the meal
Medicines for diabetes, if taken by mouth, should usually be taken around meal times to reduce blood sugar levels after eating, and to avoid hypoglycaemia (very low blood sugar).
Refrence source